Learn Korean Language Lesson 31 – Korean Conjunction – And
Continue from Lesson 30 – Korean Question Word – What. Today we come to learn Korean Conjunction – And. In this Learn Korean Language Lesson, we will learn Korean Conjunction – And – 서 [ seo ]. This Conjunction – And is different from what we have learned in Learn Korean Language Lesson 23 – Korean Conjunction – And. Do you remember what we have learned before? Now, we will first learn the new Korean Conjunction and subsequently look at the differences between both of them: 서 vs 고.
Korean Conjunction – And
The pattern for this Korean conjunction is very simple as long as you know how to use the Korean Informal Polite Sentence Endings. The rules are the same! We have 아요/어요/해요, you will just need to replace the “요” with 서 and it will become either 아서/어서/해서 which is attached to the stem of the action verb in the first clause. In terms of chronology, the action expressed in the first clause occurs before the second. 아서/어서/해서 is used when a subject performs two actions one after the other. It signifies that the second action occurs in connection with the first, but follows after it in time sequence. Read the rules below.
When a verb stem ends with the vowel ㅏ or ㅗ, -아서 is added. See examples below.
- 가다 [ ga-da ] + -어서 = 가서 [ ga-seo ] – to go
- 사다 [ sa-da ] + -어서 = 사서 [ sa-seo ] – to buy
- 자다 [ ja-da ] + -어서 = 자서 [ ja-seo ] – to sleep
- 오다 [ o -da ] + -어서 = 와서 [ wa-seo ] – to come
- 보다 [ bo-da ] + -어서 = 봐서 [ bwa-seo ] – to see
- 살다 [ sal-da ] + -어서 = 살아서 [ sa-ra-seo ] – to live
- 만나다 [ man-na-da ] + -어서 = 만나서 [ man-na-seo ] – to meet
When a verb stem ends with a vowel other thanㅏ or ㅗ, -어서 is added. But verb stems ending with a vowel ㅣ, ㅣ + -어서 results in -여서. For example, 마시다 becomes 마셔서 and 가르치다 becomes 가르쳐서. See examples below.
- 주다 [ ju-da ] + -어서 = 줘서 [ jwo-seo ] – to give
- 먹다 [ meok-da ] + -어서 = 먹어서 [ meo-geo-seo ] – to eat
- 읽다 [ il-da ] + -어서 = 읽어서 [ il-geo-seo ] – to read
- 배우다 [ bae-u-da ] + -어서 = 배워요 [ bae-wo-seo ] – to learn
- 마시다 [ ma-si-da ] + -어서 = 마셔요 [ ma-syeo-seo ] – to drink
- 만들다 [ man-deul-da ] + -어서 = 만들어서 [ man-deu-reo-seo ] – to make.
- 가르치다 [ ga-reu-chi-da ] + -어서 = 가르쳐서 [ ga-reu-chyeo-seo ] – to teach.
When a verb stem ends with -하다 [ ha-da ] becomes -해서 [ hae-seo ]. -하다 is verbs “‘to do”. Many nouns can be made into present tense by adding the verb -해서. See examples below.
- 일하다 [ il-ha-da ] + -해서 = 일해서 [ il-hae-seo ] – to work
- 공부하다 [ gong-bu-ha-da ] + -해서 = 공부해서 [ gong-bu-hae-seo ] – to study
- 운동하다 [ un-dong-ha-da ] + -해서 = 운동해서 [ un-dong-hae-seo ] – to exercise
- 전화하다 [ jeon-hwa-ha-da ] + -해서 = 전화해서 [ jeon-hwa-hae-seo ] – to make a phone call
- 요리하다 [ yo-ri-ha-da ] + -해서 = 요리해서 [ yo-ri-hae-seo ] – to cook
- 운전하다 [ un-jeon-ha-da ] + -해서 = 운전해서 [ un-jeon-hae-seo ] – to drive
- 수영하다 [ su-yeong-ha-da ] + -해서 = 수영해서 [ su-yeong-hae-seo ] – to swim
Now, you can try to make your own Korean sentences with Korean Conjunction – 서 (and) and what you have learned from the previous Learn Korean Lessons. You may read the examples below before you make your own!
- 아침에 일어나서 세수해요. [ a-chim-e-i-reo-na-seo-se-su-hae-yo ] – I wake up in the morning and wash my face.
- 도서관에 가서 공부했어요. [ do-seo-gwan-e-ga-seo-gong-bu-hae-sseo-yo ] – I went to the library and studied.
- 저녁에 친구를 만나서 영화를 봤어요. [ jeo-nyeok-e-chin-gu-reul-man-na-seo-yeong-hwa-reul-bwa-sseo-yo ] – I met my friend in the evening and watched a movie.
- 점심에 김밥을 만들어서 먹었어요. [ jeom-sim-e-gim-ba-beul-man-deu-reo-seo-meo-geo-sseo-yo ] – I made kimbap at lunchtime and ate (it).
Important!!! Remember that we have learned the Korean Past Tense in Learn Korean Language Lesson 28? When there are two Korean Verbs, past tense is expressed only in the second verb, not in the first one. The correct one will be as above.
- 도서관에 갔어서 공부했어요 – This is WRONG!
- 저녁에 친구를 만났어서 영화를 봤어요. – This is WRONG!
- 점심에 김밥을 만들었어서 먹었어요. – This is WRONG!
Differences between Korean Conjunction 서 and 고
Remember that we have learned 하고 and 고 in Learn Korean Language Lesson 23? 하고 (and) is use to connect two nouns but 고 is use to connect two sentences. So, we will just need to look at the differences between 고 and 서 because both of them are used to indicate a sequence of actions or events, they signify a different relationship among the clauses they link together. However, with -아서/어서/해서, the first and second clauses are closely related. The action in the second clause is connected with the action in the preceding clause. But with 고, the action in the first clause is usually completed before the action in the second clause occurs. See examples below.
- 친구를 만나고 영화를 봤어요. [ Chin-gu-reul-man-na-go-yeong-hwa-reul-bwa-sseo-yo ] – I met my friend and watched a movie (alone).
- 친구를 만나서 영화를 봤어요. [ chin-gu-reul-man-na-seo-yeong-hwa-reul-bwa-sseo-yo ] – I met my friend and watched a movie (with my friend).